This research paper is the manifestation of my programme in Diplomatic Practice at the United Nations Headquarters in Vienna, Austria and in Economic Diplomacy in Geneva, Switzerland.
KLEPTOCRACY - Exploitations of Nations
: Government by those who seek chiefly status and personal gain at the
expense of the governed; also: a particular government of this kind.
Source: "Kleptocracy." Merriam-Webster.com. Merriam-Webster, n.d. Web. 28 Apr. 2017.
Kleptocracy (from Ancient Greek κλέπτης (kléptēs, “thief”), κλέπτω (kléptō, “steal”), from Proto-Indo-European *klep- (“to steal”); and from the Ancient Greek suffix - κρατία (-kratía), from κράτος (krátos, “power, rule”; klépto- thieves + -kratos rule,literally "rule by thieves")  is a government with corrupt leaders (kleptocrats) that use their power to exploit the people and natural resources of their own territory in order to extend their personal wealth and political power. Typically this system involves an obsession with television ratings over state concerns and embezzlement funds at the expense of the wider population.  
This paper is aimed at drawing attention to anti-corruption activists and advocacies against corruption; and to postulate an international perspective of the innumerable forms of modus operandi envisaged by Kleptocrats. Research and cases studies have been derived from dozens of publications, interviewing of bureaucrats and diplomats, political ministers and investigative journalists.
In the classical sense, corrupt rulers or kleptocrats, (ab)use their power to exploit
their nation’s resources for personal gain, ambition and political supremacy.
There are varied aspects of corruption such as money laundering, fraud, electoral crimes, embezzlement and the list goes on. A society does not diminish or become corrupt overnight, it happens progressively.
Therefore, I wish to reiterate that scholarship emphasis needs to be on ‘individual corruption’ to begin with. For instance, a nation may be corrupt because of its leaders and their connivance with the underworld. For instance, Mohammed Suharto, President of Indonesia (1967-1998) had embezzled an estimated $15-35 billion and Arnold Aleman, President of Nicaragua (1997-2002) who embezzled an estimated $100 million.
* Citations are mentioned in the Research paper.